Self-Determination Theory in HCI: Shaping a Research Agenda
The workshop was held in two sessions - virtually in April and in-person in May in New Orleans during the CHI 2022 main conference.
Self-determination theory (SDT)—a multifaceted theory stating that people are motivated by innate and universal psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness—has become one of the most frequently used and well-validated theories used in HCI research, but its use often remains superficial and disjointed. This workshop therefore convenes researchers across application domains (games, health and wellbeing, learning, etc.) to co-create a research agenda on how SDT-informed HCI research can maximise its progress in the coming years.
Keynotes Richard Ryan - "The next 10 years of SDT research" Marc Hassenzahl - "Contextualising SDT in wider user experience and wellbeing-driven design' Yvonne Rogers - "The role and value of theory-related work in HCI"
Workshop Outputs The results from virtual and on-site sessions will be integrated into a draft research agenda after the workshop that all accepted attendees are then invited to review and refine as co-authors. Accepted papers will remain available on the workshop site prior to the event and are invited to be submitted in extended form to a special issue with Interacting with Computers, which will also publish the resulting joint research agenda.
16. Self-Determination Theory & Onboarding Interactive Augmented Social Play Spaces Danića Mast, Research Group Healthy Lifestyle in a Supporting Environment, The Hague University of Applied Science; Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science, Leiden University, the Netherlands Sanne I. de Vries, Research Group Healthy Lifestyle in a Supporting Environment, The Hague University of Applied Science, the Netherlands
Beyond ethical principles, tech makers need actionable methods that fit into their real world practice. We believe combining wellbeing-supportive design with methods for ethical analysis is a powerful way forward toward achieving more responsible and humane technology.
As part of our mission to bridge research to actionable practice, we propose an upgraded version of the design process that integrates ethics & wellbeing into its fabric.
Our approach is to start with what designers already do (see the Design Council's double diamond), and integrate practices for ethical and wellbeing-supportive design to arrive at a future-ready process for beneficial technology: A responsible design process. Read the full explanation on Medium or our academic journal paper in IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society.
When we talk about supporting wellbeing determinants and psychological needs it’s important to understand there are different spheres of experience in which these can be influenced. For example, a technology might be autonomy-supportive from the software interaction perspective but not in relation to the real-world activity it’s intended to support. This reference sheet can help keep team members on the same page in conversations to do with wellbeing support. For details, see: The Six Spheres of Tech Experience at Medium.
The diagram of the spheres can be found in the following paper: Responsible AI-Two Frameworks for Ethical Design Practice Peters, D., Vold, K., Robinson, D., Calvo, R. A., & Member, S. (2020). Responsible AI-Two Frameworks for Ethical Design Practice. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1109/TTS.2020.2974991
The spheres concept was originally and fully described here: Peters, D., Calvo, R. A., & Ryan, R. M. (2018). Designing for motivation, engagement and wellbeing in digital experience. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(MAY). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00797
Self-Determination Theory and Technology Design (Chapter in SDT Handbook) Peters, D., & Calvo, R. A. (2023). Self-Determination Theory and Technology Design. In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Self-Determination Theory (p. 0). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780197600047.013.49
Wellbeing Supportive Design – Research-Based Guidelines for Supporting Psychological Wellbeing in User ExperiencePeters, D. (2022). Wellbeing Supportive Design – Research-Based Guidelines for Supporting Psychological Wellbeing in User Experience. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 0(0), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2022.2089812
Responsible AI-Two Frameworks for Ethical Design Practice Peters, D., Vold, K., Robinson, D., Calvo, R. A., & Member, S. (2020). Responsible AI-Two Frameworks for Ethical Design Practice. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1109/TTS.2020.2974991
Supporting human autonomy in AI systems Calvo, R. A., Peters, D., Vold, K., & Ryan, R. M. (2020). Supporting human autonomy in AI systems: A framework for ethical enquiry. In C. Burr & L. Floridi (Eds.), Ethics of Digital Wellbeing: A multidisciplinary approach. Springer.
Motivation, Engagement and Thriving in User Experience (METUX model) Peters, D., Calvo, R. A., & Ryan, R. M. (2018). Designing for motivation, engagement and wellbeing in digital experience. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(MAY). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00797 An article on METUX which provides a framework and measures for applying psychological needs theory to the technology context. METUX and foundations for many of the tools below are described in the paper, "Motivation, Engagement and Wellbeing in Digital Experience" in Frontiers in Psychology. To develop METUX, we collaborated with wellbeing psychologist, Richard M. Ryan (originator of Self-Determination Theory). The paper contains the first version of the "Spheres of Technology Experience" framework. The most recent version can be found here.
Toolkit - Background ResearchPeters, D. (Submitted). Designing for psychological wellbeing Development of a research-based toolkit for wellbeing supportive technology design. [PhD Thesis]. University of Sydney.
Peters, D., Ahmadpour, N., & Calvo, R. A. (2020). Tools for Wellbeing-Supportive Design: Features, Characteristics, and Prototypes. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 4(3), 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti4030040
Peters, D., & Ahmadpour, N. (2020). Digital wellbeing through design: Evaluation of a professional development workshop on wellbeing-supportive design. 32nd Australian Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 148–157. https://doi.org/10.1145/3441000.3441008
Positive Computing: Technology for wellbeing and human potential
Positive Computing from MIT Press was written by engineer and designer team, Rafael Calvo (Imperial College London) and Dorian Peters (University of Cambridge). Positive Computing is also available in Chinese, Japanese and Korean.
A toolkit for technology-makers interested in improving their technologies by applying wellbeing psychology to design. The toolkit includes the latest version of the Wellbeing Design Cards
The toolkit helps you support key psychological needs through design. The content draws on decades of research in psychology and the toolkit has been tested with over 100 designers and researchers from across the world.
Wellbeing Design Cards
Design for Wellbeing Workshop
1. Wellbeing Design Cards
Deck of 30 cards that provide insights and prompts for ideation, collaboration and design. In 4 suits (psychological needs, spheres of experience, diagnosis and strategies) these cards give quick and easy access to the core concepts of wellbeing psychology as applied to technology with real-world examples and strategies.
Design for Wellbeing Workshop - A 'Playboard' (something between a gameboard and a playbook) in the form of a free Miro template. It can be used to guide a group through an educational collaborative workshop on wellbeing supportive design (no facilitator required.).
Grab your team and learn how to support wellbeing in all your technology projects. This 2-hour DIY online workshop includes videos, tools and hands-on activities and takes no preparation. Just grab a couple people and jump in. All materials and instructions are built into the board. The workshop has been refined with feedback from 60+ design professionals and is used as part of responsible design training at Imperial College London. > View Background research
The Strategies cheatsheet (PDF) includes 30 design strategy examples that demonstrate various ways (almost design patterns) that the 15 Wellbeing Supportive Design heuristics can be supported within specific contexts. > View Background research
5. Prompt sheet
The Prompt sheet(PDF) includes trigger questions for prompting design ideation and evaluation from the perspective of psycholofical wellbeing. These can also be reformulated as 'How might we' questions. > View Background research